I’m All Blocked Up

Will Segwit be activated? Will a hard fork occur? Will the block size ever increase? These are the burning questions that act as a drag on further Bitcoin price appreciation. I don’t know how it will all pan out, but that doesn’t mean that BitMEX can’t allow its clients the ability to profit by predicting how Bitcoin will or will not scale.

BitMEX is pleased to announce the launch of two prediction futures contracts themed around the ongoing Bitcoin scaling debate.


SEGWIT, symbol: B_SEGWITZ17, is a prediction future on whether or not BIP141, also known as Segregated Witness, will be activated on the longest Bitcoin chain by the expiry date (31 December 2017, 12:00 UTC).

SEGWIT will settle at 100:

  • If BIP141 is activated during an “activation period” by the expiry date, and
  • The Bitcoin chain that activated SegWit must remain the Bitcoin chain with the largest hash power for 1,512 out of the following 2,016 blocks (75%). These 1,512 blocks must have passed by the expiry date.

SEGWIT will settle at 0 if the above conditions are not met.

What is an Activation Period?

An activation period spans one difficulty period (2016 blocks). 95% of the blocks mined during an activation period must signal acceptance of BIP141 for SegWit to be activated.

View Activation Periods

Big Blocks

BLOCKS, symbol: B_BLOCKSZ17, is a prediction future on whether a block larger than 1MB will be mined on the longest Bitcoin chain.

BLOCKS will settle at 100:

  • If a greater than 1MB block is mined on the Bitcoin chain with the largest hash power, and
  • If the Bitcoin chain that mined the greater than 1MB block must remain the Bitcoin chain with the largest hash power for 1,512 out of the following 2,016 blocks (75%). These 1,512 blocks must have passed by the expiry date.

BLOCKS will settle at 0 if the above conditions are not met.

Note that blocks of size > 1MB due to SegWit activation shall not mean a block greater than 1MB has been mined; BLOCKS is contingent on an actual base block size limit increase.

Trading Prediction Futures

Each contract can either settle at 100 or 0. The value of each contract is 0.0001 XBT multiplied by the futures price. For example, if you bought one contract at 50.00 , it would be worth 0.005 XBT. If the contract settled at 100, you would make 0.005 XBT. If the contract settled at 0, you would lose 0.005 XBT.

No leverage is offered on prediction futures contracts.

You will find all BitMEX prediction futures contracts under the tab entitled “Binary”. All prediction futures contracts’ symbols will begin with “B_”. This prefix denotes that contracts are binary, meaning they will either settle at 100 or 0.

Prediction Futures Series Guide

Hold The Line

Throughout China’s history, northern rulers struggled to effectively control those to the south and west of them. The varied ethnicities, topography, and economies of China meant that no ruler was able to retain absolute power for long. Due to relative global peace and globalisation since WW2, the Communist Party of China (CCP) has been able to maintain control by bribing the masses with employment.

Rich people don’t have kids. As a result, after the baby boom in the mid-20th century, the global developed and developing population rate has fallen or will soon fall below the replacement rate. The replacement rate is defined as a woman birthing 2.1 children over her productive lifetime. Africa is the one exception, but unfortunately their consumption power cannot replace dying first-world consumers.

Xi Jinping’s mission to solidify the political base of the Communist Party of China occurs at a time when global demand for goods is falling, wages in China are rising, and the population is aging. Any perceived threat to the continuation of the CCP’s rule cannot be tolerated. 99% of humans aren’t communist, capitalist or any other “ist”, they are hungry.

China must feed its billion plus population by providing employment. Without employment, young men transform from docile workers to cannon fodder for skilled orators and politicians.

These trends explain why this year’s National Congress is of extreme importance. Calm must be maintained at all costs. However, internal monetary pressures continue to build.

Grandma Yellen unleashed another 0.25% rate hike last week. She also did not alter the forward guidance. Another two rate hikes are expected this year, and some analysts believe the Fed could and should increase the pace of hikes.

The Fed should raise rates faster while the market shrugs them off. The S&P 500, which is the only economic indicator of importance, has not reacted negatively to rising rates. Yellen has cover to raise more aggressively. The higher rates go now, the more they can be cut when the next financial crisis strikes.

For China, USD interest rate normalisation puts increasing pressure on the CNY. In a normal year, this would not be an issue. The PBOC could raise rates onshore, or allow the CNY to weaken. However the directive is for a calm period before the National Congress.

The PBOC can’t materially tighten rates onshore lest they pop the gargantuan property bubble. The Chinese property market is a government sanctioned ponzi scheme. Developers, which are some of the most valuable companies in China, borrow money from financially repressed savers. The developers then purchase land from local governments, who “buy” land from their peasant subjects at below market rates.

The developer must build, sell, and refinance before the bill comes due for past loans. Should rates rise materially, developers will be forced to dump inventory en masse.

Over 70% of household wealth is trapped in property. Each time it appears that Beijing will allow the market to correct, they relent in the face of sure losses from a wide swath of the population.

Tiananmen Square essentially was an inflation inspired middle class protest against the CCP. However in 1989, the middle class were mostly teachers, in 2017 they are hundreds of millions of property punters. Impoverish them, and the CCP will see its mandate to rule evaporate.

The second option of a material currency devaluation is also off the table for the time being. A 20% to 30% one-off devaluation is needed. However, an action of that magnitude would portray China’s economy as both weak internally and externally. A perceived “weak” China will not be tolerated while the new leadership ascends.

A recent Bloomberg article illustrates that Xi Jinping is not relenting in his dive to tame China.

For the first time local party committees are using “negative lists” — including everything from bribe-taking to involvement with illegal construction projects — to screen delegations to the 19th Party Congress, which will set China’s political hierarchy for the next five years. A front-page article endorsing the moves in the party’s flagship People’s Daily newspaper Monday showed the push has support from the highest levels.

The negative lists — a concept often associated with trade negotiations in which anything not specifically mentioned is allowed — gives Xi yet another tool to shape the key party gathering in Beijing. While no date has been set, it’s expected to occur in the second half of the year.

The twice-a-decade congress is crucial for Xi to secure lasting influence beyond 2022, when his own tenure would be expected to end. At this year’s meeting, 11 of 25 Politburo members — including five of seven members on its supreme Standing Committee — could be replaced.

Bitcoin Withdrawals

Mandated by the PBOC, the large exchanges are implementing new KYC and AML policies. Certain accounts must now travel in person to the exchanges’ offices for physical checks of identity. If followed, this will make client onboarding expensive and extremely bureaucratic. The end result will be less people trading on exchange, and more trading on OTC platforms such as LocalBitcoins.

I believe that withdrawals will not resume until after the National Congress and a subsequent CNY devaluation. However, a recent notice from Huobi implies an imminent lifting of the withdrawal ban. To withdraw Bitcoin, clients must state and prove where the coins will go, and state the purpose of the withdrawal. Responses such as “I want to escape a weak CNY” will certainly not fly.

True to form, the government is saddling exchanges with needless bureaucracy to bankrupt those with weak balance sheets. The PBOC will keep inventing new KYC / AML policies until they are ready to allow Bitcoin to be freely traded again.

Unfortunately Chinese comrades aren’t stupid. They recognise the perilous state of the economy and still hold Bitcoin IOU’s on exchanges. The expected stampede for the exits by selling Bitcoin to withdraw CNY has not happened en masse. Held long enough, this Bitcoin IOU could protect wealth against the imminent devaluation. This is one reason why the price still hovers around $1,000.

OPEC : Oil :: Miners : Bitcoin

Jihan Wu, CEO of Bitmain the world’s largest operator and producer of mining equipment, made an apt comparison between the Bitcoin scaling issue and the oil market.

OPEC in their quest to maintain high oil prices sowed the seeds for American shale oil. The high oil price allowed engineers to explore and drill for more expensive shale oil. Shale oil’s extraction price continues to decline as technology improves. As the supply of oil increased, prices fell, and OPEC’s hold on the market withered.

According to Jihan, Bitcoin miners are like OPEC. A small number of players control the majority of the hashrate. Bitcoin transaction volumes have increased, but the network can only process a finite amount of transactions. Therefore, transaction fees rose alongside the price.

Miners are happy. Some users are not. As a work around, some developers (core) altered the Bitcoin protocol allowing it to process more transactions without the need for a larger miner produced hashrate. If these off-chain scaling solutions are successful (e.g. The Lightning Network), miner’s earnings from transaction fees could decline.

On the margin, either you view Bitcoin more as a store of value akin to gold, or a payments network. If Bitcoin is more a store of value, the price of transactions is of little concern. Gold is rarely used for day to day commerce. It is used to store large amounts of wealth, and as a settlement currency for large notional transactions. Therefore the velocity of gold is low.

If Bitcoin is more a decentralised payments network, then the price and speed of a transaction is paramount. Bitcoin must be able to compete with credit card networks such as Visa and Mastercard if it is to become a real payments solution. Currently Bitcoin is clunky and expensive and is no match to these incumbents.

If neither SegWit nor a block size increase reaches consensus, Bitcoin will continue to travel down the road to becoming another form of money good collateral that is expensive in small quantities to move. To many miners this is a perfectly acceptable solution as long as the price remains high. Given that blocks are full, transaction fees are high, and the price continues to rise, users view Bitcoin more a store of value than a payments protocol.

The question is, can another cryptocurrency become a store of value, and be cheap and fast to send. Should another coin achieve this feat, it will become a major challenger to Bitcoin. To date, no coin is within striking distance of Bitcoin. Many claim that Ether will unseat Bitcoin, but it does not command the same global mindspace as Bitcoin.

Will a group of miners engage in a contentious hard fork, I don’t know. But I do know humans. Humans are lazy and greedy. Regardless of the temper tantrums thrown on various social media platforms, miners care about their bottom line. Doing nothing will not harm them in the short to medium term.

A Bitcoin hard fork will not be as cute and cuddly as Ethereum’s. The Ether market cap was barely $1 billion when the DAO disaster necessitated a face saving hard fork. Bitcoin is worth $17 billion. The amount of money invested in mining equipment, exchanges, and wallets tailored for Bitcoin is orders of magnitude larger than for Ethereum.

A failed hard fork that leaves a minority chain commanding a double digit percent of the network hashing power will not be viewed kindly. Unlike Ether and Ether Classic, the sum of the newly formed majority and minority chains will be drastically lower than the pre-fork value of Bitcoin. Ether never positioned itself as a store of value or a payments protocol. It is fuel for decentralised applications.

Bitcoin’s value is its relative stability vs. other cryptocurrencies. Disrupt that stability and its status as the reserve currency of crypto will evaporate. The challenger that does emerge will certainly not use Bitcoin’s Proof of Work algorithm. If successful, the challenger will render all Bitcoin ASIC mining equipment worthless.

Is Jihan going to stake the future of his Billion dollar mining company on a hard fork that could go pear shaped? No chance.

Onwards and Upwards

“If you mess with the bull, You get the horns!”

A managing director on the sales trading desk at Deutsche Bank used to scream that out when the market ripped higher. Equities almost makes up for the lack of pay vs. fixed income by employing some of the most colourful characters.

What do you call Bitcoin sans China or an ETF approval? All Time High. Two of the most central bullish tenants have been removed, yet Bitcoin still trades above $1,200.

The next issue that could crater the price is the ongoing scaling debate. The Segwit vs. Bitcoin Unlimited civil war is spoken of not only where internet trolls hide, but also in mainstream financial news outlets such as Bloomberg. No matter, the price continues to slowly grind higher.

With the Mt. Gox all time high surpassed, we are in the beginning stages of a secular rally. This rally will completely re-rate the entire cryptocurrency complex. The Ether market cap is now over $2 billion. DASH continues to rip higher. Three cryptocurrencies with >$1 billion market caps would be something to behold. All hail Shitcoins.

What is encouraging about the 2017 Bitcoin rally is that realised volatility is muted. The above chart displays the 30 day realised volatility and the XBT/USD price. Volatility rose during the initial PBOC crackdown, but then continued to fall as the price surpassed $1,200.

For Bitcoin, this rally was calm. Traders are still in disbelief. While the price continues to crawl higher, haters keep hatin’ because of China, scaling, and or lack of legitimisation by regulators. While they wait, others get rich. As a result, the crack up boom (aka Fomo) phase has yet to begin.

Another encouraging sign is the relatively low basis level exhibited by futures contracts. During the first quarter, the BitMEX Bitcoin / USD 31 March 2017 Futures Contract, XBTH17, traded with a maximum outright basis of 10% – 13%.

During the 2013 bubble, the ICBIT March 2014 quarterly future, featuring only 3x leverage, traded at a 100% outright basis at the end of December 2013. Shortly thereafter, the price crashed below $1,000 then $800 then $600, and finally we entered a nuclear winter for two years.

The market has matured since then. However, the market fomo will manifest itself in a sky high basis for the soon to be listed 30 June 2017 futures contract, XBTM17. Basis even with constant selling pressure from cash and carry arbitrageurs, can and will go substantially high due to 100x leverage engjoyed by longs.

A sustained 30 day realised volatility over 100%, and elevated outright basis levels of over 30% on XBTM17, will provide clues during the second quarter as to whether Bitcoin’s run is nearing completion. As the intensity of price action accelerates, the next upside physiological barrier is $2,000.

No Means No

A retail Bitcoin ETF is proving as elusive as entrance into the Elysian fields. The SEC issued a scathing rebuke as to why they disapproved a Bats exchange rule change that would have allowed the COIN ETF to list. The reasons for denial given by the SEC display a fundamental problem with the market structure of Bitcoin.

After reading the document, it is clear that the SolidX and Greyscale ETF applications are destined for the dustbin as well. Changing the thought process of a regulatory body takes years. A US-listed Bitcoin ETF will not be forthcoming any time soon.

Bitcoin Exchanges and Trading Volume

The COIN ETF daily Net Asset Value is calculated using the daily Gemini Bitcoin auction price. To create and redeem units, Authorised Participants (AP) must trade in the auction.

The SEC’s major issue with the application was that the auction volume was insufficient to support trading.

From the SEC:

Moreover, self-reported statistics from the Gemini Exchange show that volume in the Gemini Exchange Auction is small relative to daily trading in bitcoin and to the number of bitcoin in a creation or redemption basket for the Trust. As of February 28, 2017, the average daily volume in the Gemini Exchange Auction, since its inception on September 21, 2016, has been 1195.72 bitcoins, compared to average daily worldwide volume of approximately 3.4 million bitcoins in the six months preceding February 28, 2017. Also, as of February 28, 2017, the median number of bitcoins traded in the Gemini Exchange Auction on a business day (when a creation or redemption request might be submitted to the Trust) has been just 1,061.99 bitcoins,129 barely larger than the 1,000 bitcoins in a creation or redemption basket.

Gemini’s volumes are so low they barely can transact one creation or redemption basket. Unable to obtain liquidity on Gemini, AP’s would be forced to transact on other exchanges. The location of these “other” exchanges gave the SEC pause.

US-based and regulated exchanges account for a relatively small percentage of global Bitcoin / USD spot trading volumes. The most liquid exchanges are based in Asia or Europe. Bitfinex, the largest Bitcoin / USD spot exchange by volume, is insolvent. These facts are troubling to the SEC.

The agency worries that the majority of trading volume occurs on “unregulated” (read: Non-US domiciled) exchanges and this could endanger ETF investors. The agency cited inadequate surveillance of the major trading centers.

Even though Gemini has a trust license and is overseen by the NYDFS, the SEC found that even Gemini’s exchange was not on par with national exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange or Nasdaq in terms of trading rules and procedures.

From the SEC:

The Exchange represents that it has entered into a comprehensive surveillance-sharing agreement with the Gemini Exchange with respect to trading of the bitcoin asset underlying the Trust and that the Gemini Exchange is supervised by the NYSDFS. Additionally, the Exchange states in its comment letter that it “agrees that less liquid markets, such as the market for bitcoin, may be more manipulable, but believes that … such concerns are mitigated as it relates to the Shares of the Trust and trading activity on the Gemini Exchange.” As explained below, however, the Commission does not believe this surveillance-sharing agreement to be sufficient, because the Gemini Exchange conducts only a small fraction of the worldwide trading in bitcoin, and because the Gemini Exchange is not a “regulated market” comparable to a national securities exchange or to the futures exchanges that are associated with the underlying assets of the commodity-trust ETPs approved to date.

Next Steps

In order to be in the running again, an ETF sponsor must demonstrate how the proposed venue for the trading of physical Bitcoin is regulated on-par with large established exchanges such as the NYSE, and has a significant market share globally. That will be almost impossible.

If Bitcoin traders desired heavily regulated exchanges, they wouldn’t prefer trading on an insolvent exchange over one registered with various alphabet letter agencies. Many large Bitcoin traders trade Bitcoin expressly because the trading venues are less regulated. They believe the operators are allowed to focus more on the customer experience and provide exactly what traders desire instead of fluffing regulators.

The absence of margin or other leveraged trading products on heavily regulated US-based exchanges means they will forever play second fiddle to Asian and European exchanges. Given the “America is the best” mentality of its national regulators, convincing them to allow an asset whose price is set by the “shifty Chinese” (insert the international boogiemen of the year) is a tall order.

However, this is not a death sentence. The SEC and other organisations are puppets of the large vested financial players. At the point when Bitcoin is too large to ignore, and daily trading volumes are robust and healthy, the iShares, Vangaurd, and Spdr’s of the ETF fund management industry will sponsor a Bitcoin ETF.

These heavyweights only care about generating fees. The underlying asset is an afterthought. When Bitcoin is large enough to support a healthy AUM that generates large management fees, they will get behind Bitcoin.

Unfortunately the biggest problem with the Winklevoss’ application was their outsider status. The objections put forward by the SEC could easily apply to any number of currently listed ETFs. If the fund manager was one of the good ‘ole boys, the ETF would stand a chance of approval.

The Investors’ Exchange LLC (IEX) applied and was approved to be designated a National Exchange by the SEC. This was not an easy process. IEX, written about in the Michael Lewis’ book Flash Boys, aims to level the playing field by enacting policies that equalise trading between low and high latency traders. The HFT lobby went into overdrive to dissuade the SEC from approving the IEX application.

IEX gives retail investors a level playing field against HFT firms. Who doesn’t favor leveling the playing field for the grannies and grandpa’s. However, this was a very heated and drawn out approval process. The SEC did the right thing in the end, but the big boys brought out all the guns.

Imagine if the big boys wanted a Bitcoin ETF. They would get it.

SEC Ruling

Indefinite Detention

Hedge Fund Brother No. 1 Xu Xiang, pictured above, was once a high flying hedge fund manager who never lost. Then one day he was disappeared. He resurfaced months later, after being convicted of securities fraud and now sits in jail. Some feared Bitcoin exchange heads could face a similar fate; however, the PBOC showed mercy.

Another week, another “meeting” between the PBOC and the heads of large Bitcoin exchanges in China. Shortly after the meeting held on March 7th, the PBOC released a statement reiterating that they have the authority to shut down errant exchanges. A list of actionable offences surfaced a few days later via Caixin. [News.bitcoin.com]

The following activities are prohibited:

  1. Offering leverage and margin trades.
  2. Producing fake volume and manipulating the market using zero fees.
  3. Violating AML laws.
  4. Violating regulations on foreign currency management and cross-border capital transfer with bitcoin.
  5. Replacing fiat by using bitcoin to purchase goods.
  6. Tax Evasion.
  7. Engaging in false advertising or participating in Ponzi schemes.
  8. Providing financial services without a permit, including credit, securities, and futures trading.

After the “friendly” meeting, exchange after exchange announced an indefinite suspension of Bitcoin withdrawals. No further guidance was given as to when Bitcoin withdrawals would resume. The price sagged a bit, then shrugged off the news. By the end of last week, Bitcoin would hit fresh all time highs in USD terms.

Chinese regulators recognise that they cannot shut down the exchanges. Regarding said exchanges, one regulator noted:

If oversimplified measures such as closing them down were taken, [investors] will be led into the underground black market or OTC markets, which are more difficult to control. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the establishment of long-term regulatory mechanisms. [News.bitcoin.com]

The new strategy is to starve the weak, and regulate the strong. This strategy is classic China. The government lets an industry compete unimpeded for a time, then they pick the strongest companies and destroy the rest through denial of critical licenses or enforcement of opaque regulations.

By removing the elixir of leveraged and zero fee trading, only exchanges with diversified business lines will survive. Earnings from spot Bitcoin trading will only be significant for the largest of exchanges (BTCC, Huobi, and OKCoin). Exchanges not on that list, will most likely not exist in 2018.

All three of those exchanges either have mining operations, payment solutions, and or offshore derivatives trading markets. Once the weaklings fold, the PBOC will bless the large incumbents and subject them to rigorous monitoring.

Viewed on a longer time frame, the developments over the past three months are positive. One of the Damocles swords hovering over Bitcoin slowly is being removed. Bitcoin will not be “banned” by the regulators. They recognise the power of the underlying technology and are attempting to rationalise Bitcoin within existing goals for China’s monetary system.

PBOC Governor Zhou in a recent interview stated that China Bitcoin trading platforms are not exchanges but rather only “websites”.

If it (trading platform/website) is called an exchange, it is not allowed unless a relevant department of our country permits it. Many people regard bitcoin online trading platforms as exchanges. These are actually two different concepts. [News.bitcoin.com]

That is encouraging that the PBOC permits mere “websites” to accept deposits like banks, and offer the trading of currency like an exchange. There is a bright future for Bitcoin in China for those who can survive. The PBOC tacitly approves Chinese people trading Bitcoin.

The current purgatory will end once the PBOC right sizes the Yuan. Calm must be maintained up until the October National Congress. After October, Beijing will greenlight the PBOC to relieve the pressure and devalue. After a large devaluation, the PBOC can loosen capital controls because once the damage is done the desire to flee is lessened. At that time Bitcoin withdrawals will be re-enabled.

COIN ETF, Event Horizon

After the PBOC curtailed Bitcoin trading inside China, America reasserted itself as the most important price setting location. The SEC’s decision on a rule change that could allow the listing of the world’s first Bitcoin ETF is the most anticipated binary outcome of 2017. Traders will make and lose tremendous sums over the next few weeks.

ETF Approval

If the SEC approves the Bats rule change, all manner of American muppet retail investors can yolo into Bitcoin via a regulated ETF. The pool of eligible money that can easily obtain exposure to Bitcoin will dramatically rise. There are various predictions about the amount of money that could flow into Bitcoin. In short, it will be Yuge.

I expect the price to appreciate by at least 100% by the end of March. This is pure speculation as no actual cash will flow into Bitcoin until the ETF begins trading later this year. The price may go up well over 100% only to sharply correct as animal spirits are tamed.

Those wishing to play the initial pump should buy the BitMEX Bitcoin / USD 31 March 2017 futures contract, XBTH17. The nitty gritty of when and how the ETF will be launched may dampen enthusiasm in the medium term. A future that expires during the height of the fomo leaves the best chance for longs to be forced into closing at a profit.

Those bullish over the medium-term, should purchase the BitMEX Bitcoin / USD 30 June 2017 futures contract, XBTM17. XBTM17 will list Friday 17 March 2017. The basis or implied interest longs pay for three month exposure will open high and rise aggressively.

During the height of the December 2013 bubble, the ICBIT March 2014 futures contract traded at an outright 100% basis. By selling futures and buying spot, you would double your money in USD terms. ICBIT only featured 3x leverage at the time, imagine how high basis could go with 100x. XBTM17 basis could trade into 100’s of percentage points throughout the contract’s life.

The Deny

The number of reasons why the SEC should not list the ETF is as numerous as those in favor of an approval. A significant amount of traders have not drank the Jim Jones koolaid. The BitMEX COIN Prediction Futures Contract, COIN_BH17, places the probability at 50%.

China took a backseat in this first quarter rally due to the actions by the PBOC. Since Bitcoin withdrawals were shut in February, hope of an ETF approval became the bullish narrative.

After Bitcoin withdrawals ceased in China, the price fell below $1,000 and quickly recovered to the kilo mark (who isn’t in love with the CoCo). That is the baseline support level sans an ETF approval.

If the rule change is denied, the price will quickly test $1,000. Due to the underlying bullishness of the market, traders will BTFD. If not now, the general consensus is that one of the many ETF applications will be approved. The market will focus on the next application approval deadline for the SolidX or Greyscale ETF.

One Week Expected Value (EV)

Assuming a 50% probability of approval, traders must compute the EV of the looming decision.

(50% * 100% Price Appreciation) + (50% * -30% Price Depreciation) = +35% EV

The EV is positive, meaning it behooves traders to be net long Bitcoin into the decision.

BitMEX offers a complete Bitcoin / Fiat trading suite. The most liquid option is to buy the Bicoin / USD Swap, XBTUSD. Be early. The enthusiasm and hype surrounding the decision will only grow throughout the week. Every major financial paper is covering this event. I have never seen so much interest in a mundane exchange rule change before.

Hallelujah, Glory Be To Growth

Glory be to growth. Reality be damned, China will continue attempting to grow at unsustainable levels. That is the message from the Chinese Premier Li Keqiang given this Sunday during his Two Sessions speech. He decreed that annual GDP growth target is +6.5%, which is slightly lower than the recently reported growth of +6.7%, [ZH]

China is not alone in its adherence to the gospel of growth. Real growth can only be achieved by productivity and population gains. These two factors are very difficult to predict or command and control with success over a long period of time. Many have tried, all of have failed.

When in doubt, governments world-wide regardless of their economic “ism” resort to rampant money printing to goose up “growth” numbers. GDP measures of the flow of goods, it is a poor yardstick for the real health of an economy. With more money, more goods flow. Voila, growth!

China did miraculously transform itself over the last 30 years. However, recent growth is merely the result of aggressive money printing. The Party talks the talk about reining in credit growth; however, in practice they are impotent to stop it.

Xi Jinping is one of the most powerful Chinese leaders since Mao. However, even he cannot politically stop the expansion of bank credit. If he were confident in his ability to, he would proclaim a more realistic growth target.

Michael Pettis, professor at Peking University and former Bear Stearns bond trader, argues that real growth over the next 10 years cannot rise above 3% to 5% without a financial crisis. The financial crises is predicated on too much credit chasing too few positive yielding investments.

Beijing knows this. The PBOC continues to slay paper tigers by removing liquidity on hand, and increasing it in other ways. For Bitcoin traders, it means that one of the main drivers of global monetary policy will continue to act as they have done in the past.

Yuan liquidity and loans will continue to be provided to zombie state owned enterprises (SOE). The iron rice bowl must hold, or peasants will reassert their displeasure with immense wealth big city elites amassed by depressing wage growth and financially repressing savers.

Excessive Yuan liquidity will push up inflation. The escape valve will be a devaluation of the Renminbi. Premier Li implicitly confirmed that arguments I have been presenting for almost two years will continue to be relevant.

The Ides of March

The next “most important ever” Federal Reserve rate decision will ironically occur on the Ides of March. That is March 15th. Various Fed governors voiced support of a hike at the next meeting. Grandma Yellen in her recent speeches has done nothing to temper the rate hike talk.

Fed Funds futures price in an 80% chance of a March 0.25% rate hike. A rate hike would be devastating to China. [CME]

Beijing refuses to use political capital to put forward economic policies to rebalance growth. They refuse to drastically curtail banks’ issuance of credit. From Queen Victoria to Chairwoman Yellen, China is once again at the mercy of an old white lady.

The Fed rarely disappoints the market when traders price in a >75% probability of a rate hike. The S&P 500 is strong, and investors seem willing to ignore reality; case and point, the Snap IPO. The company’s expertise is losing money with style. Masochistic investors propelled the latest tech darling up over 50% from the IPO price.

The Fed has perfect rate hike cover. The amount of balance sheet pain the PBOC endures to save face internationally is unimaginable. Calm must remain before the October National Congress. The lack of a pressure releasing devaluation in the face of a market assured rate hike, means when it comes it will be enormous.

The Bitcoin angle is well known. USD up, CNY down, Bitcoin moon!

Bitcoin Backwardation

The problem with shorting a deflationary asset: unlevered, the maximum you can make is 100%. When longing, the maximum you can make is infinity. Helping the case for bulls is the fixed supply of Bitcoin. Leveraged speculators prefer to go long Bitcoin rather than short. As a result, quarterly Bitcoin futures usually trade at a premium (positive basis) to the spot price.

It is puzzling to many why BitMEX March 2017 Bitcoin / USD futures contracts, XBTH17, currently trade at a discount to the spot price. The same has been true of OKCoin quarterlies. This phenomenon is called backwardation. It is even stranger considering the impressive bull-run Bitcoin has experienced over the last year.

Why are quarterly futures are in backwardation? When will the curve normalise? I will attempt to answer these questions, but the result is speculative; I am using only publicly available information and logic to arrive at this hypothesis.

What Is Bitcoin Good For?

What can one do with Bitcoin after it is purchased? If you don’t use it as collateral to gamble or place speculative trades, most Bitcoin lies dormant in a wallet. Bitcoin as a means of payment is still in its infancy.

Holders constantly search for ways to earn a return on their Bitcoin. No sovereign governments, banks, or companies borrow in Bitcoin yet. Therefore there are no “safe” fixed-income Bitcoin products.

To meet this need, savvy entrepreneurs have set up funds that pay a guaranteed daily rate of interest if you invest Bitcoin. These funds are based purely on trust. They are especially popular in China. Figures well known in the industry would leverage their personal brand to get holders to invest in their funds. I commonly saw 0.01% per day offered.

Depending on your personal network, you could also borrow Bitcoin from large miners or holders and pay them interest as well. If you are able to take down a large size, you may borrow cheaper than 0.01% per day.

What safe investment pays out a daily nominal return in Bitcoin over 0.01%? Prior to this week, I assumed that most funds invested in mining operations. But now I have another theory.

The major Chinese exchanges (BTCC, Huobi, and OKCoin.cn; aka The Big Three) operated popular P2P margin platforms. Users lent each other Bitcoin and CNY, allowing the exchange to offer margin trading. The lenders would earn a healthy return without taking any Bitcoin price risk.

The most profitable trade was lending CNY. Speculators going long borrowed CNY to purchase Bitcoin. Interest rates averaged 0.10% per day.

Investors in the fund gave Bitcoin, and the fund operator paid them 0.01% in Bitcoin per day. This is what the fund operator did next:

Step 1

Sell a portion of the Bitcoin for CNY. I will assume 50% of Bitcoin assets are sold.

Step 2

Use the 50% of Bitcoin remaining as margin to buy quarterly futures contracts to cover the 50% short Bitcoin exposure. You don’t convert 100% of Bitcoin into fiat-cash so that you have sufficient Bitcoin-denominated margin to buy futures contracts. USD denominated futures contracts are the most liquid, so it’s likely that most simply bore the USDCNY currency risk.

In the past, XBTH17 and other competing quarterly futures contracts have traded at a premium to spot. Assume that you buy at an annualised premium of 20%, this then means that you effectively pay 0.055% per day. On a blended fund basis (remember you only used 50% of assets), you pay 0.0275% daily.

Your fund owes 0.01% per day to clients, and you pay 0.0275% per day on your long futures contract hedge. Your total cost is 0.0375% per day.

Step 3

Lend the CNY on a margin trading platform. Assume you can lend your CNY at 0.1% per day on one of the big three Chinese exchanges. On a blended fund basis, you receive 0.05% per day.

Your net carry is 0.05% minus 0.0375%, or 0.0125% per day.

If you have 10,000 Bitcoin under management, you earn a profit of 1.25 Bitcoin per day. You can increase daily earnings by increasing the amount of Bitcoin assets sold for CNY. If you sold 75% of assets, your net carry would be 0.02375% per day.

Step 4

After three months, the futures contracts will expire. At that point, you must long roll your contracts into the next quarterly. The spread between the two contracts represents the cost of carry for the next three months.


It is necessary to understand the mechanics that fund-operators must undertake when they pay back investors.

Suppose an operator raised 2 XBT. He sold 1 XBT and received $1000. He took the other Bitcoin and bought 1000 XBTH17 (March 2017) futures contracts at $1000.

The price of Bitcoin rises to $2000 and at that point the investor recalls his loan. The operator must return 2 XBT.

The 1000 long XBTH17 futures have a profit of 0.5 XBT: (1/$2000 – 1/$1000) * -$1 * 1000. He is still 0.5 XBT short. He receives the $1000 principle back from the margin loans he made. With that he purchases 0.5 XBT at a price of $2000. He can now return the full 2 XBT.

Inverse Futures PNL = (1/P1 - 1/P0) * -$1 * Contracts

The important fact is that he must sell futures and buy spot, which at the margin causes basis to fall. If too many investors unwind at the same time, the falling basis will move a futures contract into backwardation.

The Great Unwind

From 24 December 2016 to 5 January 2017, the price of Bitcoin went from $800 to over $1,200 equivalent in China. Volumes spiked and bulls were borrowing everything in sight to go long Bitcoin. To satisfy the demand the CNY need to come from somewhere. I don’t believe exchanges were re-hypothecating customer CNY. I believe the increased CNY demand was met by credit whales operating in the manner I describe above. The hedging pressure from credit whales and Bitcoin bulls caused the XBTH17 premium to reach 54% annualised on January 5th.

All of a sudden, the PBOC turned on the lights at the club. In response to pressure from regulators, Chinese exchanges ceased offering margin trading on January 11th. The very next day, XBTH17 entered backwardation. Existing loans were allowed to expire, but no new loans could be taken out.

Margin loans had 2 to 30 day terms. As loans expired, credit whales need to unwind their trades. That meant selling futures and buying spot with released CNY. This helped move the futures’ basis into backwardation.

The Fear Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD) surrounding what the PBOC would or wouldn’t do prompted speculators to short Bitcoin via futures. There was no more margin trading therefore futures were the only bearish instrument available. Even today, the PBOC has released no statement as to what policy actions will be undertaken as a result of their “investigations”.

In short:

Margin Book Unwind + FUD = Futures Backwardation

Curve Normalisation

By mid-February all margin loans will expire. Afterwards, selling pressure will be removed.

If the PBOC does not say anything directly pre or post Chinese New Year, it will be safe to assume the exchanges heard and heeded the intended message. The FUD selling pressure will cease.

The basis will slowly creep higher as longs regain confidence and bargain hunt. A violent short squeeze could happen, should one of these three following black swan events transpire before the expiry of March 2017 futures:

  • The PBOC aggressively devalues the Yuan. Bitcoin will catch a bid again as comrades look to preserve what purchasing power they have remaining.
  • Marine Le Pineapple Pen is polling well in French elections. If Le Pen becomes the favourite, global contagion fears will skyrocket as an EU breakup will look more likely.
  • Trump passes a massive infrastructure spending bill. This is “bigly” inflationary and will cause US rates to rise which will exacerbate the pressure on the PBOC to slice the Yuan.

Bitcoin will respond positively if any of these scenarios come to pass. If you believe these situations are remotely possible, it behooves you to begin building a long XBTH17 position and take advantage of the backwardation.

All Quiet on the Eastern Front

In October of this year, China will hold the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party. During this rocking party, new members of the Politburo Standing Committee will be chosen. The Committee is the nation’s highest governing body.

The number one goal of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC) is the continuation of the one-party rule. In the months preceding the conference it is paramount that China not lose face, internally or externally. No issue is allowed to overshadow this important jamboree.

Unfortunately, 2017 appears to be the year when tough economic decisions cannot be delayed any longer. China must rebalance its economy by growing household wealth. This comes at the expense of the previous “winners”, such as credit-intensive heavy industry companies.

Everyone knows what must be done, but it is proving very difficult to disenfranchise the wealthy and connected. To date, the PBOC has engineered a slow but steady depreciation of the CNY. Depreciation is the escape valve that must be activated to export the money being printed onshore; new money must be printed to help engineer a soft landing during the economic rebalancing. In reaction, citizens fearing future weakness are attempting to spirit their capital out of the country.

The PBOC aggressively closed the obvious ways that capital fled. After tickling 7.00, the PBOC began strengthening USDCNY. In Orwellian fashion, they combined this with a direct instruction to financial analysts: refrain from discussing future Yuan depreciation.

The word from Zhongnanhai was stability and above all else, silence. In any other year the PBOC might stand a chance to achieve the holy monetary trinity. That is, having a closed capital account, a fixed exchange rate, and independent monetary policy. Unfortunately for China, Trump won the 2016 election.

Jobs For The Boys

America and China are more alike than many would like to believe. Trump and the CPC both received a mandate to rule by creating an iron burrito and rice bowl. While Minnie’s Haberdashery don’t allow no Mexicans, the current demographics of America leave Trump no choice.

Trump will put the good ‘ole boys back to work by building roads, bridges, and airports. He will also coerce American companies to onshore production of products intended for the American market through punitive taxation.

Pepe Escobar had this to say about Trump’s true handlers:

The Masters have decided to reindustrialize the United States and want to take jobs back from China. This is advisable from the Chinese viewpoint; for why should they sell their work to the US for a dollar that has no intrinsic value and get really nothing back for the work.

These policies if enacted will be highly inflationary. The secular bond bull market that began with Reagan will end with Trump. Trump has shown it is fatal to campaign against providing middle-class jobs. Regardless of their hemming and hawing, his inflationary spending proposals will be approved by a so-called deficit conscious Republican Congress. [Sputnik]

Artemis Capital, whose pieces on volatility investing are excellent, had this to say:

He [Donald Trump] will lever, and lever, and lever, and lever… and lever… and then restructure his way to success, or whatever success is defined as by the broadest measure of popularity at any given time. Trumponomics, if it delivers, will be a supply side free for all: massive tax cuts, deficit spending to create jobs, financial and energy deregulation, business creation, and trade protectionism all driving inflation. More importantly, Trump sees bankruptcy as a tool and not an obligation and will have no problem pushing the US to the limits of debt expansion.

The largest debtor and creditor nations cannot both embark on the same economic policies. The world must soak up both USD and CNY paper. Unfortunately, most of the world would rather look at Ben Franklin than Chairman Mao.

The Dot Plot from Hell

Grandma Yellen and Trump will become fast enemies. In the minutes of the latest meeting, Fed governors explained their fears about inflationary fiscal policies. Many believe this prompted the Fed to forecast three 0.25% rate hikes in 2017, versus previous expectations of only two.

The Fed even floated a trial balloon that it may begin to unwind its portfolio. They rightly fear massive mark-to-market losses should rates spike higher in anticipation of the enactment of Trumponomics.

For China to suppress CNY currency volatility, they cannot have the USD continue surging higher. If the Fed actually raises rates as per schedule, China will be in a very bad predicament. Not only will China’s portfolio of US Treasuries decline in value as rates rise, unpatriotic comrades will find new and more imaginative ways to turn Yuan into stable USD assets.

The measure to watch for is CPI food inflation: especially the oink oink flavour. The PBOC continues to bail out local governments and SOE banks through monetary liquidity injections via Reserve Ratio Requirement cuts and reverse-repo operations. If this new CNY paper cannot be exported abroad because of tightening capital controls, the pressure will show up in food prices.

If there is a piece of data that doesn’t paint a pretty picture of China, authorities silence the messenger. Recently Beijing instructed the meteorological agency to stop producing smog alerts. Pollution in north-eastern cities such as Beijing and Tianjin has hit records this winter.

When the inflationary pressures present themselves in accelerating CPI inflation, the government may decide to omit this crucial economic statistic from publication. That is when you know something big will happen.

To alleviate the pressure, the PBOC will aggressively depreciate the Yuan.

Before or After

When will the PBOC release the pressure? Chinese New Year, which starts this Friday and lasts until February 2nd, presents a perfect opportunity. Banks are closed for a week. Central banks love to impoverish their citizens over bank holidays.

A one-off devaluation during New Year gives China breathing room leading up to October. If the USD strength continues and the PBOC does not devalue, the PBOC might be forced to rock the boat just a little too close to the big dance.

If they delay, then no action will likely happen before the October National Congress. For those expressing a view through digital currencies, the absence of CNY currency volatility may dampen the price of Bitcoin in the interim.

The October to end of year Bitcoin price performance was +70% and +84% in 2015 and 2016 respectively. In both cases, the PBOC took the scythe to the Yuan. Fall 2017 will see similar stellar price performance if the PBOC delays the inevitable.

Marine Le Pineapple Pen

Risk-off will rule if Le Pen claims victory in the April French presidential elections. She is tired of France waving the white flag in the face of German economic onslaught. She has vowed to offer a referendum on EU membership. Should a vote be held, there is a non-zero probability that the frogs will leap into a new boiling cauldron of their own making.

A real risk of an EU breakup launched by the zone’s 2nd largest economy will send the USD soaring. The rush to safety will decimate emerging market currencies. If the PBOC delays the devaluation, they run a real risk of emergency cuts in the summer due to European contagion.

Make Bitcoin Boring Again

The absence of margin and zero trading fees will certainly temper the desires of Chinese punters to trade Bitcoin. However, these actions by themselves do not preclude a bullrun, should the domestic currency continue to stumble.

The Invisible Bull

Monero (XMR) was the best performing digital currency in 2016, rising over 2,745%. Even if you didn’t enter at the beginning of the year, if held over the last month you would have doubled your money. In the last week, it is up over 30% in USD terms. The market capitalisation of Monero rose over 40x this past year. Monero recently bested Ripple and Litecoin to earn the 3rd spot behind the King and Kitten of Crypto (ETH).

Hold on – check out Big Daddy Vitalik’s kitten bag.

Okay, back to reality. Why is Monero so hot right now? A few months ago a few Darknet markets, AlphaBay and Oasis Market, began using Monero. This highlighted the need for a digital currency more anonymous than Bitcoin. The adoption by a real userbase gave Monero a distinct advantage over other anonymous currencies such as Dash and Zcash.

Kraken added Monero trading noting “Monero is built on the core principles of privacy, decentralization, open development, scalability and fungibility”. Coinbase received many requests to add Monero. However given the regulatory straitjacket Coinbase is under, color me surprised if they support trading of a fully anonymous crypto.

Monero transactions achieve anonymity by using ring signatures. The process is similar to a Bitcoin mixer, but is included in the protocol of the coin and is used by default. The effect of this is to make blockchain analysis much more difficult.

Zcash uses a different approached, called a zk-SNARK, which allows transactions to be completely anonymous. If this feature is not enabled, transaction processing and verification is the same as the Bitcoin protocol. Please read our article “The Battle For Online Privacy” for a further discussion of these two privacy protocols.

The Zcash mining reward is a point of contention. 20% of the reward goes to the founders which is what sparked the fork for Zcash Classic. Zcash Classic eliminates the founders’ reward and slow mining start.

Monero and Zcash have almost the same hashing power (60 MH/s). In the long-run however, given the tail-end emission of Monero (which negates the need to increase transaction fees or discuss block size debates), Monero will be the preferred coin to mine over Zcash which follows the Bitcoin protocol for mining rewards. In addition, those users requesting anonymity in their transactions would need to pay the miners more on Zcash than for a non-anonymous transaction, given the z-addresses are larger.

Image 1: Ratio of XMR / ZEC Price

As the above image suggest, Monero is currently starting to gain more momentum than Zcash, however the war will continue throughout 2017. The real battle begins when the supply of ZEC increases to a level where it can actually be widely used. Traders must ponder the switching costs between Zcash and Monero for Darknet market operators.

To add some tinder to the fire, effective Friday 6 January 2017 12:00 UTC, the leverage for XMR7D will be increased from 20x to 25x.

Happy Trading.

Big Door In, Small Door Out

China, once a cuddly panda, is now a violent dragon. The tide has turned, and financial transactions that were previously tolerated are now banned.

2017 has barely begun, and yet China has enacted a flurry of financial regulations to stem the outflow of CNY, and in its wake, arrest a whole-scale financial meltdown. USDCNY flirts with 7.00. Once that level falls, the light of financial truth will shine on China’s cockroach-infested capital account.

In a previous newsletter, I estimated that on January 1st, another $800 billion could legally leave China due to the $50,000 FX limit quota per adult. The State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE) chose to begin enforcing current regulations which prohibit the use of the FX quota for investment purposes.

Comrades must now declare to their bank how their quota will be used. Overseas tuition payments, family visits, and medical treatment are permitted. Buying Hong Kong issued insurance policies, fancy flats in Vancouver and Sydney, however are forbidden. Should a comrade violate the will of Beijing and be caught, they forfeit their quota for up to 3 years. [Bloomberg]

Governments globally love to create endless pages of laws and regulations so they may cherry pick enforcement. Harvey Silvergate estimates that Americans commit three felonies per day. [WSJ] Committing a felony in America disenfranchises you for life. China is no different. The “law” is what the Party says it is, and it is almost impossible to predict what the “law” will be on any given day.

The Hong Kong Dollar Peg Will Fall

China’s woes don’t end with citizens converting CNY into USD legally. The CNH (offshore Yuan) plunge protection team is in full force. To deter evil speculators from shorting CNH, the PBOC has driven up the cost of borrowing CNH in Hong Kong to nosebleed levels. The CNH funding crunch will affect USD and HKD interbank lending rates for Hong Kong and Mainland banks.

The first tremors are being felt in the Hong Kong Interbank Offered Rate (HIBOR). HIBOR is at levels not seen since the 2008 GFC. [Analystz.HK] For year, wealthy Chinese have plowed into the Hong Kong property market. With Fed Funds at 0% to 0.25% for almost a decade, it was almost free to own Hong Kong property. The HKD is pegged to the USD, therefore Hong Kong imports American monetary policy.

Chinese investors purchased a USD asset, with leverage, with a very low interest expense. All they had to do was take a bus, ferry, car, or plane across the border to Hong Kong. No questions would be asked about the provenance of the cash used for the down payment.

If Hong Kong property prices begin to fall due to investors’ inability to fund their investment, it will be a stampede for the exit. But who will be left to buy? Beijing on multiple occasions has asserted its de facto control over Hong Kong. Booksellers have been apprehended, duly elected members of the legislative body denied entry, and the hope of universal suffrage in 2017 annihilated.

The city is gearing up for the 2017 Chief Executive (CE) election. Those who stand for CE must be approved by Beijing, and they are elected by LEGCO representatives. LEGCO is made up of unelected representatives from various business constituencies, and a smattering of popularly elected representatives.

The 2014 Umbrella Revolution in Hong Kong began when Beijing effectively said No to allowing the 2017 CE to be elected via universal suffrage. This violated their agreement with Britain during the 1997 Handover. Students took to the streets in protest. The protest eventually ended, but everyone knew the real battle would be this year during the CE “election”.

Beijing will unequivocally demonstrate that China owns Hong Kong. The implications for capital are severe. If Beijing controls Hong Kong, then the capital of those who believed they escaped the purview of Chinese financial regulators is fair game. Legally, there is no way to have squirreled enough money out of China to purchase a Hong Kong property. My childhood bedroom would be a multi-million dollar apartment were it situated in Hong Kong.

He who sells first, sells best. The Chinese will dump Hong Kong assets (i.e. property). The question is what to do with the HKD they have received. The first step is to convert HKD into USD. It is believed that the HKD is backed 1:1 with USD at the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA). We will find out the truth in that. If the HKMA has been cheating, the peg could fall under intense selling of HKD for USD.

The HKMA decreed the HKD can trade between 7.75 to 7.85 vs. the USD. My outrageous prediction for 2017 is that the HKD peg falls, and it trades materially weaker. A rush for the exits by Chinese asset holders will precipitate the fall of the peg. Then Beijing will make the political decision to weaken HKD aggressively to match where CNY is trading.

Beware of Chinese New Year

Last year, I falsely predicted that the PBOC would aggressively devalue CNY over the lunar new year. At the beginning of 2016, China’s “official” FX reserves stood near $4 trillion. This year, they stand at $3 trillion. The pace of outflows accelerated in 2016, and the pace of new financial regulations aimed at closing gaping capital account loopholes also intensified.

China must act swiftly before too much Yuan escapes. Another year of loophole whack-a-mole cannot happen. It is do or die time for Beijing if they want to avert a financial meltdown. Trapping CNY in the country to help fund a roll-over of the vast amount of corporate and local government debt is essential.

Over the next twelve months, savers will find holes in the enforcement of the FX quota regulations. Most likely they will bribe national banks’ local office managers to allow them to skirt the rules. China is huge, and Beijing’s control nationally is always touch and go.

Banks are closed from January 27th to February 2nd. A large one-off devaluation to USDCNY 9.00 would solve the problem. During the 1990s China faced a similar problem. Credit was overextended and 40% of Chinese banks’ loan books were non-performing (NPL). [The Diplomat] Analysts believe similar NPL ratios for Chinese banks exist today. A 30% devaluation would provide suitable breathing room for the PBOC to print enough CNY to paper over the problem.

The best case for China is to become the 21st century Japan. Japan avoided an outright financial collapse for almost 30 years by financially repressing savers with low interest rates. For China, this road starts with an aggressive devaluation.

Bitcoin, The Small Door

During times of financial panic, many alternative assets gain value. Bitcoin’s market cap is only $16 billion. Only a small portion of CNY will be able to find a home in Bitcoin. Even if the price grew 10x from current levels, Bitcoin would still not be able to absorb the sheer volume of CNY looking for a safe haven.

As Bitcoin nears all-time-high’s in CNY terms, desperate savers will investigate just what Bitcoin is. Many 2013 bubble bag holders will rekindle their love of Bitcoin and other digital assets.

Chinese savers aren’t stupid. The events around the globe have proven that central bankers will lie and lie, until the moment of truth arrives. Overnight Chinese households will see their wealth greatly diminished. The race is on to find a door out of China.

Those who previously found refuge in Hong Kong will need a new place to store their USD. It will flow into gold, shares of western blue-chip companies, and alternative assets like Bitcoin.