Abstract: In this piece we list 19 Bitcoin consensus rule changes (or 18 as an accidental one “failed”), which represents what we believe to be almost every significant such event in Bitcoin’s history. At least three of these incidents resulted in an identifiable chainsplit, lasting approximately 51, 24 and 6 blocks, in 2010, 2013 and 2015, respectively.
|Chainsplit||A split in the blockchain, resulting in two separate chains, with a common ancestor. This can be caused by either a hardfork, a softfork or neither.|
|Consensus rule changes|
A loosening of the consensus rules on block validity, such that some blocks previously considered as invalid are now considered valid.
Existing nodes are required to upgrade to follow the new hardforked chain.
A tightening of the consensus rules on block validity, such that some blocks previously considered as valid are now considered invalid.
Existing nodes do not necessarily need to upgrade to follow the new softforked chain.
List of Bitcoin consensus forks
|Date||Activation Block Number||BIP Number or Software Version||Description||Type||Outcome|
|28 July 2010||n/a1||0.3.5||OP_RETURN disabled. Fixing a critical bug which enabled anyone to spend any Bitcoin||Softfork||No evidence of any issues during this upgrade|
|31 July 2010||n/a1||0.3.6||OP_VER and OP_VERIF disabled3||Softfork||Some users had trouble upgrading and it was recommended that nodes should be shutdown if they could not be upgraded2|
|The addition of the OP_NOP functions, although perhaps there was no usage of OP_NOP prior to this point||Hardfork|
|01 Aug 2010||n/a1||0.3.7||Separation of the evaluation of the scriptSig and scriptPubKey. Fixing a critical bug which enabled anyone to spend any Bitcoin||Potentially a non-deterministic hardfork||No evidence of any issues during this upgrade|
|15 Aug 2010||74,638||0.3.10||Output value overflow bug fix following a 184.5 billion Bitcoin spend incident. The 0.5BTC which was the input to the transaction remains unspent to this day.||Softfork||A chainsplit occurred. Around 5 hours after the incident, a fix was released, client 0.3.10. It is believed that 51 blocks were generated on the “bad chain” before the “good” chain re-took the PoW lead|
|Disabling OP_CAT, which removed a DoS vector, along with the disabling of 14 other functions||Softfork|
|07 Sept 2010||n/a1||0.3.12||Adding the 20,000 signature operation limit, in an incorrect way. This incorrect limit still exists today.||Softfork||No evidence of any issues during this upgrade|
|12 Sept 2010||79,400||n/a||
Adding the 1MB blocksize limit.
The “MAX_BLOCK_SIZE = 1000000” commit occurred on 15 July 2010, which was released in the 0.3.1 rc1 version of the software on 19 July 2010. The commit enforcing the 1MB rule occurred on 7 September 2010, activating at block 79,400. On 20 September 2010, Satoshi removed this activation logic, but kept the 1MB limit.
|Softfork||No evidence of any issues during this upgrade|
|15 March 2012||171,193||BIP30||Disallow transactions with the same TXID, unless the older one was fully spent. In September 2012 the rule was applied to all blocks, apart 91,842 and 91,880, which violate the rule||Softfork||This was a flag day softfork, there is no evidence of any issues|
|1 April 2012||173,805||BIP16||Pay to Script Hash (P2SH) – This allows transactions to be sent to a script hash (address starting with 3) instead of a public key hash (addresses starting with 1)||Softfork||55% activation threshold, over blocks in the 7 days prior to 1 February 2012. Miners did not upgrade fast enough, so the evaluation point was delayed until 15 March. Users running 0.6.0rc1 who did not upgrade for the delay, activated the softfork early and got stuck on block 170,060 when an invalid transaction according to their nodes was mined. After activation problems were then caused by the remaining 45% of miners producing invalid blocks for several months after the softfork|
|24 Mar 2013||227,835||BIP34||Requires the coinbase transaction to include the block height||Softfork||95% activation threshold. A successful rollout occurred|
|11 Mar 2013||225,430||0.8.0||This was an unplanned hardfork caused by the migration from Berkeley DB to LevelDB, which accidentally removed an unknown 10,000 BDB database lock limit. This caused a chainsplit which occurred on 11 March 2013, although the software which caused the error was released 20 days earlier on 20 February 2013. The change was reverted as the Bitcoin economy and miners switched back to 0.7.2 rules||No change in the consensus rules occurred||A chainsplit of at least 24 blocks occurred, with the 0.8.0 chain having a maximum lead of 13 blocks. A successful double spend also occurred. The original rules chain eventually re-took the PoW lead|
|18 Mar 2013||n/a1||0.8.1||This was a temporary softfork, introducing a new rule requiring that no more than 4,500 TXIDs are referenced by inputs in a block, this rule is stricter than the 10,000 BDB lock limit. The rule expired on 15 May 2013, a flag day hardfork.||Softfork||There is no evidence of any issues|
|15 May 2013 or 16 Aug 2013||252,451 or earlier||BIP50||In August 2013 a block may have been produced which violated the original 10,000 BDB lock limit rule, which was relaxed on 15 May 2013.||Hardfork||There is no evidence of any issues|
|04 July 2015||363,731||BIP66||Strict DER Signature – This upgrade means Bitcoin is no longer dependent on OpenSSL’s signature parsing||Softfork||95% threshold over a 1,000 block period. A chainsplit occurred, lasting 6 blocks, as some miners signaled support for BIP66 but had not upgraded and were SPY mining. The new softfork rules chain eventually took the lead.|
|14 Dec 2015||388,380||BIP65||Check Lock Time Verify – This enables funds to be locked until a specific time in the future. This is Bitcoin’s first new function||Softfork||Successful rollout using a 95% threshold|
|04 July 2016||419,328||BIP68
Relative lock time
Remove the incentive to use a future timestamp to grab transaction
|Softfork||Successful rollout using 95% versionbits signaling|
|23 July 2017||477,800||BIP91||This temporary softfork makes signaling for the SegWit upgrade mandatory||Softfork||Softfork successfully activated with an 80% miner threshold over a 336 block period, although only a tiny minority of users enforced BIP91 rules, which have since expired. Therefore the risk of a chainsplit was elevated in this period.|
|01 Aug 2017||478,479||BIP148||This temporary softfork makes signaling for the SegWit upgrade mandatory for a two week period following 1 August 2017||Softfork||Flag day softfork appeared to succeed with no issues, although only a minority of users enforced BIP148 rules, which have since expired. Therefore the risk of a chainsplit was elevated in this period.|
|24 Aug 2017||481,824||BIP141
|The Segregated Witness upgrade||Softfork||Rollout using 95% versionbits signaling|
|The year 2262||13,440,000||BIP42||Fixed a 21 million coin supply cap bug. The software was upgraded in April 2014 to fix this bug, however the new rule does not apply until the 23rd century.||Softfork||The softfork is not applicable yet|
Sources: BitMEX Research, Github, Bitcoin Blockchain
- With the exception of the 1MB blocksize limit, prior to the 2012 BIP16 softfork, there was no activation methodology, therefore if the fork occurred smoothly without a chainsplit, there is not necessarily a specific block height or date on which the consensus fork occurred.
- “If you can’t upgrade to 0.3.6 right away, it’s best to shut down your Bitcoin node until you do” – Satoshi Nakamoto (Source)
- Prior to the removal of OP_VER, each software upgrade could potentially be considered as a non-deterministic hardfork and these have been excluded from this list. Although if the definition of hardforks include this, then its a somewhat pedantic definition.
- There are no consistent definitions used in the above table, because for example, a different definition of the date on which the fork occurred may be more relevant in each incident, depending on the circumstances.
- Others have also mentioned that changes to the P2P protocol can also be considered hardforks, if they make previous software releases unusable since they can no longer connect to the network. However, strictly speaking these do not relax the rules on block validity, and one could sync old nodes by setting up a relay of intermediary versions of the software. These changes are excluded from the above list.
- Some consider BIP90 as a hardfork, however since it only relaxed rules related to softfork activations which happened in the past, it does not share many of the characteristics or risks normally related to consensus forks. Using the same logic, the block checkpoint scheme can also be considered softforks.
- In July 2010 the chain selection rule was altered to shift to most accumulated work from the number of blocks. Technically this is not a change to block validity rules, however this change does share some of the risks associated with consensus rule changes.
Was the 2013 incident a hardfork?
In our view, on balance, the increase in the BDB lock limit, a few months after the 11 March 2013 chainfork, was a hardfork. The rule in question was a 10,000 BDB lock limit, which was increased. The rule was relaxed on 15 May 2013 in the sofware version 0.8.1, which was released on 18 March 2013. A block exceeding this limit may finally have been produced on 16 August 2013. Therefore the date of the hardfork could either be 15 May 2013 or 16 August 2013, depending on how you define it.
Although some have argued that this may not have been a hardfork, for a variety of reasons, including that this rule was “quasi-non-deterministic” or that one could manually change the BDB config settings. Indeed, due to the non-deterministic nature of the lock limit, perhaps it is theoretically possible one could have a local system setup, such that the old BDB lock limit has never been breached. Therefore, one could declare that there has “never been a hardfork” in Bitcoin, due to a very strict definition, requiring a hardfork to be deterministic or perhaps even directly related to Bitcoin data such as transactions or the block header.
When discussing this incident, Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell said the following:
Sort of a mixed bag there, you can actually take a pre BIP-50 node and fully sync the blockchain, I last did this with 0.3.24 a few months ago. It just will not reliably handle reorgs involving large blocks unless you change the BDB config too. So it’s debatable if this is a hard fork either, since it’s quasi-non-deterministic. There were prior bugs fixed where older versions would get stuck and stop syncing the chain before that too… So I think by a really strong definition of creating a blockchain which violates the rules mandated by prior versions we have never had a hardfork.
Chainsplit incident of July 2015
In the above list of consensus rules changes, there are three incidents which caused identifiable chainsplits. The most recent of there occurred on 4 July 2015, during the BIP66 softfork upgrade.
Immediately after the activation of BIP66 there was a 6 block orphan chain created because a miner produced an invalid block that was not recognised as invalid by some other mining pools, because they were not validating new blocks.
In this case some miners were signaling support for BIP66 soft fork but hadn’t actually upgraded their nodes to validate, one could say miners were “false flagging”. If the miners had been validating blocks, they would have discovered the block was invalid and rejected it, however some miners built on top of the invalid block and a chainsplit occurred.
A diagram illustrating these 6 blocks and the chainfork is displayed below.
Graphical illustration of July 2015 chainsplit
Whilst many claims made in this piece are cited, we do not guarantee accuracy. We may have made errors or accidentally omitted consensus rule changes from the list. We welcome corrections.
After the publication of this piece, an alternative list of consensus versions was published on the Bitcoin Wiki.